class Complex
Error ReportCollection examples

Complex number

class Complex is Cool does Numeric {}

Represents a number in the complex plane.

Complex objects are immutable.


postfix i

Adding a trailing i to a number literal makes it a Complex, for example:

say 2i;     # same as Complex.new(0, 2); 
say 1-2e3i; # same as Complex.new(1, -2e3);


method new

Defined as:

multi method new(Real $reReal $im --> Complex:D)

Creates a new Complex object from real and imaginary parts.

my $complex = Complex.new(11);
say $complex;    # OUTPUT: «1+1i␤»

When created without arguments, both parts are considered to be zero.

say Complex.new# OUTPUT: «0+0i␤»

method re

Defined as:

method re(Complex:D: --> Real:D)

Returns the real part of the complex number.

say (3+5i).re;    # OUTPUT: «3␤»

method im

Defined as:

method im(Complex:D: --> Real:D)

Returns the imaginary part of the complex number.

say (3+5i).im;    # OUTPUT: «5␤»

method reals

Defined as:

method reals(Complex:D: --> Positional:D)

Returns a two-element list containing the real and imaginary parts for this value.

say (3+5i).reals;    # OUTPUT: «(3 5)␤»

method isNaN

Defined as:

method isNaN(Complex:D: --> Bool:D)

Returns true if the real or imaginary part is NaN (not a number).

say (NaN+5i).isNaN# OUTPUT: «True␤» 
say (7+5i).isNaN;   # OUTPUT: «False␤»

method polar

Defined as:

method polar(Complex:D: --> Positional:D)

Returns a two-element list of the polar coordinates for this value, i.e. magnitude and angle in radians.

say (10+7i).polar# OUTPUT: «(12.2065556157337 0.610725964389209)␤»

method floor

Defined as:

method floor(Complex:D: --> Complex:D)

Returns self.re.floor + self.im.floor. That is, each of the real and imaginary parts is rounded to the highest integer not greater than the value of that part.

say (1.2-3.8i).floor;           # OUTPUT: «1-4i␤»

method ceiling

Defined as:

method ceiling(Complex:D: --> Complex:D)

Returns self.re.ceiling + self.im.ceiling. That is, each of the real and imaginary parts is rounded to the lowest integer not less than the value of that part.

say (1.2-3.8i).ceiling;         # OUTPUT: «2-3i␤»

method round

Defined as:

multi method round(Complex:D: --> Complex:D)
multi method round(Complex:D: Real() $scale --> Complex:D)

With no arguments, rounds both the real and imaginary parts to the nearest integer and returns a new Complex number. If $scale is given, rounds both parts of the invocant to the nearest multiple of $scale. Uses the same algorithm as Real.round on each part of the number.

say (1.2-3.8i).round;           # OUTPUT: «1-4i␤» 
say (1.256-3.875i).round(0.1);  # OUTPUT: «1.3-3.9i␤»

method truncate

Defined as:

method truncate(Complex:D: --> Complex:D)

Removes the fractional part of both the real and imaginary parts of the number, using Real.truncate, and returns the result as a new Complex.

say (1.2-3.8i).truncate;        # OUTPUT: «1-3i␤»

routine abs

Defined as:

method abs(Complex:D: --> Num:D)
multi sub abs(Complex:D $z --> Num:D)

Returns the absolute value of the invocant (or the argument in sub form). For a given complex number $z the absolute value |$z| is defined as sqrt($z.re * $z.re + $z.im * $z.im).

say (3+4i).abs;                 # OUTPUT: «5␤» 
                                # sqrt(3*3 + 4*4) == 5

method conj

Defined as:

method conj(Complex:D: --> Complex:D)

Returns the complex conjugate of the invocant (that is, the number with the sign of the imaginary part negated).

say (1-4i).conj;                # OUTPUT: «1+4i␤»

method sqrt

Defined as:

method sqrt(Complex:D: --> Complex:D)

Returns the complex square root of the invocant, i.e. the root where the real part is ≥ 0 and the imaginary part has the same sign as the imaginary part of the invocant.

say (3-4i).sqrt;                # OUTPUT: «2-1i␤» 
say (-3+4i).sqrt;               # OUTPUT: «1+2i␤»

method gist

Defined as:

method gist(Complex:D: --> Str:D)

Returns a string representation of the form "1+2i", without internal spaces. (Str coercion also returns this.)

say (1-4i).gist;                # OUTPUT: «1-4i␤»

method raku

Defined as:

method raku(Complex:D: --> Str:D)

Returns an implementation-specific string that produces an equivalent object when given to EVAL.

say (1-3i).raku;                # OUTPUT: «<1-3i>␤»

method Real

Defined as:

multi method Real(Complex:D: --> Num:D)
multi method Real(Complex:U: --> Num:D)

Coerces the invocant to Num. If the imaginary part isn't approximately zero, coercion fails with X::Numeric::Real.

The :D variant returns the result of that coercion. The :U variant issues a warning about using an uninitialized value in numeric context and then returns value 0e0.

sub infix:<**>

Declared as

multi sub infix:<**>(Complex:D \aComplex:D \b --> Complex:D)
multi sub infix:<**>(Num(Real) \aComplex:D \b --> Complex:D)
multi sub infix:<**>(Complex:D \aNum(Real) \b --> Complex:D)

The exponentiation operator coerces the second argument to Complex and calculates the left-hand-side raised to the power of the right-hand side. Since 6.d, either argument can be equal to zero.

say i ** i;   # OUTPUT: «0.20787957635076193+0i␤» 
say 2 ** i;   # OUTPUT: «0.7692389013639721+0.6389612763136348i␤» 
say i ** 2;   # OUTPUT: «-1+1.2246467991473532e-16i␤» 
say 0 ** i;   # OUTPUT: «0+0i␤» 
say 0** 0i; # OUTPUT: «1+0i␤»