Error ReportCollection examples

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Chapter headings
Raku™ by example 101 Pragma v6 Statements Lexical scope and block Sigils and identifiers Scalar Filehandle and assignment String literals Arrays, methods and invocants Hashes for and blocks Any and += Fat arrow, pairs and autovivification Postincrement and preincrement Topic variable Blocks Stable sort Standard output Variable interpolation Double-quoted strings and single-quoted strings Zen slices Exercises
Perl to Raku guide - in a nutshell CPAN Syntax Identifiers -> Method calls Whitespace Sigils $ Scalar @ Array % Hash & Sub * Glob [] Array indexing/slicing {} Hash indexing/slicing Creating references and using them Operators , (Comma) List separator <=> cmp Three-way comparisons ~~ Smartmatch operator & | ^ String bitwise ops & | ^ Numeric bitwise ops & | ^ Boolean ops << >> Numeric shift left|right ops => Fat comma ? : Ternary operator . (Dot) String concatenation x List repetition or string repetition operator .. ... Two dots or three dots, range op or flipflop op String interpolation Compound statements Conditionals if elsif else unless given-when Loops while until do while/until for foreach each Flow control statements continue Functions Built-ins with bare blocks delete exists Regular expressions ( regex / regexp ) Change =~ and !~ to ~~ and !~~ . Captures start with 0, not 1 Move modifiers Add :P5 or :Perl5 adverb Special matchers generally fall under the <> syntax Longest token matching (LTM) displaces alternation Named captures Comments BEGIN, UNITCHECK, CHECK, INIT and END UNITCHECK becomes CHECK No block necessary Changed semantics with regards to precompilation Pragmas strict warnings autodie base, parent bigint bignum bigrat constant encoding integer lib mro utf8 vars Command-line flags -a -F -l -M -m -E -d, -dt, -d:foo, -D, etc. -s File-related operations Reading the lines of a text file into an array Capturing the standard output of executables. Environment variables Perl module library path Misc. '0' is True dump AUTOLOAD Importing specific functions from a module Importing groups of specific functions from a module Core modules Data::Dumper Getopt::Long Automated translation Blue Tiger Perlito Perl-ToPerl6 Other sources of translation knowledge
Perl to Raku guide - overview Raku in a nutshell Syntactic differences Operators in Raku Functions in Raku Special variables in Raku
Perl to Raku guide - functions DESCRIPTION NOTE Alphabetical listing of Perl functions Filetests abs accept alarm atan2 bind binmode bless break caller chdir chmod chomp chop chr chroot close closedir connect continue cos crypt dbm functions defined delete die do dump each eof eval evalbytes exec exists exit exp fc fcntl __FILE__ fileno flock fork formats getc getpeername getpgrp getppid getpriority get and set functions getsock* glob gmtime goto grep hex import index int ioctl join keys kill last lc lcfirst length __LINE__ link listen local localtime lock log lstat m// map mkdir msg* my next no oct open opendir ord our pack package __PACKAGE__ pipe pop pos print printf prototype push quoting rand read readdir readline readlink readpipe recv redo ref rename requires reset return reverse rewinddir rindex rmdir s/// say scalar seek seekdir select semctl semget semop send setpgrp setpriority setsockopt shift shm* shutdown sin sleep sockets sort splice split sprintf sqrt srand stat state study sub __SUB__ substr symlink syscall sys* system syswrite tell telldir tie time times tr/// truncate uc ucfirst undef unlink unpack unshift untie use utime values vec wait waitpid wantarray warn write y///
Perl to Raku guide - operators DESCRIPTION NOTE Operator precedence and associativity Terms and list operators The arrow operator Auto-increment and auto-decrement Exponentiation Symbolic unary operators Binding operators Multiplicative operators Additive operators Shift operators Named unary operators Relational operators Equality operators Smartmatch operator Bitwise And Bitwise Or and Exclusive Or C-style Logical And C-style Logical Or Logical Defined-Or Range operators Conditional operator Assignment operators Comma operator List operators (rightward) Logical Not Logical And Logical or and Exclusive Or Quote and quote-like operators I/O operators No-ops Bitwise string operators
Perl to Raku guide - syntax DESCRIPTION NOTE Free form Declarations Comments Truth and falsehood Statement modifiers Compound statements Loop control For loops Foreach loops Switch statements Goto Ellipsis statement PODs: embedded documentation
About the docs Structure Generating HTML from Pod Contributing Adding definitions
Classes and objects A quick overview The Task example Class Attributes Twigil $! Twigil $. is rw trait is built trait is required trait Default values Class variables Methods Private methods Construction bless TWEAK BUILD Destruction Consuming our class A word on types Inheritance Overriding inherited methods Multiple inheritance The also declarator Introspection Overriding default gist method
Community Overview The Raku community Online communities IRC bots Offline communities Other resources Rakudo Weekly Raku Advent calendar
CompUnits and where to find them Overview Introduction Why change? Long names $*REPO Repositories Resources Dependencies Precomp stores Credit
Concurrency High-level APIs Promises Supplies whenever react Transforming supplies Ending a supply Phasers in a supply or react block Channels Proc::Async Low-level APIs Threads Schedulers ThreadPoolScheduler CurrentThreadScheduler Locks Safety concerns
Containers What is a variable? Scalar containers Callable containers Binding Scalar containers and listy things Assigning and binding to array variables Binding to array elements Flattening, items and containers Self-referential data Type constraints Definedness constraints Custom containers
Contexts and contextualizers Sink Number String Boolean List Item context
Control flow Statements Blocks Phasers do start if else/elsif unless with orwith without when for gather/take supply/emit given default and when proceed and succeed given as a statement loop while, until repeat/while, repeat/until return return-rw fail once quietly LABELs next last redo
Command line interface Command line interface - an overview Parsing the command line parameters into a capture Calling a provided MAIN subroutine using that capture Creating / showing usage information if calling MAIN failed sub MAIN %*SUB-MAIN-OPTS named-anywhere bundling is hidden-from-USAGE Unit-scoped definition of MAIN sub USAGE Intercepting CLI argument parsing (2018.10, v6.d and later) sub ARGS-TO-CAPTURE Intercepting usage message generation (2018.10, v6.d and later) sub RUN-MAIN sub GENERATE-USAGE Intercepting MAIN calling (before 2018.10, v6.e)
Exceptions Ad hoc exceptions Typed exceptions Catching exceptions Exception handlers and enclosing blocks try blocks Throwing exceptions Resuming of exceptions Uncaught exceptions Control exceptions
Experimental features pack macros cached
FAQ General What's the difference between Raku, Rakudo and Perl 6? When was Raku released? Is there a Raku version 6.0.0? When was v6.d released? As a Raku user, what should I install? As an advanced user I want to track Rakudo development. Where can I find good documentation on Raku? Can I get some books about Raku? What is the Raku specification? Is there a glossary of Raku related terms? I'm a Perl programmer. Where is a list of differences between Perl and Raku? I'm a Ruby programmer looking for quickstart type docs? Modules Is there a repository of third party library modules for Raku? Is there a perldoc (command line documentation viewer) for Raku? Can I use Perl modules from Raku? Can I use C and C++ from Raku? Nativecall can't find and I only have! Where have all the traditional UNIX library functions gone? Does Rakudo have a core standard library? Is there something like B::Deparse/How can I get hold of the AST? What is precompilation? Can I have circular dependencies between modules? Common operations String: How can I parse and get a number from a string? String: How can I check if a string contains a substring and if so, how can I get indices of matches? String: How can I get the hexadecimal representation of a string? String: How can I remove from a string some characters by index? String: How can I split a string in equal parts? Language features How can I dump Raku data structures (like Perl Data::Dumper and similar)? How can I get command line history in the Raku prompt (REPL)? Why is the Rakudo compiler so apologetic? What is (Any)? What is so? What are those :D and :U things in signatures? What is the --> thing in the signature? How can I extract the values from a Junction? If Str is immutable, how does s/// work? If Int is immutable, how does $i++ work? What's up with array references and automatic dereferencing? Do I need the @ sigil? Why sigils? Couldn't you do without them? "Type Str does not support associative indexing." Does Raku have coroutines? What about yield? Why can't I initialize private attributes from the new method, and how can I fix this? How and why do say, put and print differ? What's the difference between token and rule ? What's the difference between die and fail? What's the difference between Pointer and OpaquePointer? You can have colonpairs in identifiers. What's the justification? How do most people enter unicode characters? Raku implementation What Raku implementations are available? What language is Rakudo written in? What language is NQP written in? Is Raku Lisp? Can I compile my script to a standalone executable? Raku distribution When will the next version of Rakudo Star be released? Metaquestions and advocacy Why was Raku originally called Perl 6? When will Raku be ready? Is it ready now? Why should I learn Raku? What's so great about it? Is Raku fast enough for me?
Filename extensions Introduction History and extensions
Functions Defining/Creating/Using functions Subroutines Blocks and lambdas Signatures Automatic signatures Arguments Return values Return type constraints Multi-dispatch proto only multi resolution by order of definition Conventions and idioms Slurpy conventions Functions are first-class objects Infix form Closures Routines Defining operators Precedence Associativity Traits Re-dispatching sub callsame sub callwith sub nextsame sub nextwith sub samewith sub nextcallee Wrapped routines Routines of parent class Coercion types sub MAIN
Glossary Abstract class Advent calendar Adverb Adverbial pair Allomorph Anonymous API Apocalypse Arity ASCII operator Autothreading Backtracking binder block bytecode Camelia Colon pair and colon list Community Damian Conway decont diffy Exegesis Forward declarations fiddly Handle Huffmanize iffy import Instance Interface Invocant IRC IRC lingo ALAP autopun backlog Bot Compilation unit or compunit DWIM flap fossil FSVO FTFY gradual typing IIRC IMHO IWBN LHF LGTM LTA NST Opt PB PR P5 P6 RSN RT TIMTOWTDI TMI TMTOWTDI UGT WFM WIP WP WW Larry Wall Lexing Literal LHS lvalue Mainline Mayspec MoarVM Multi-dispatch multi-method Née NFG Niecza Not Quite Perl NQP NYI opcode Operator Parse tree Parameter Parrot PAST Perl Perl 6 PERL POD POV Propspec Pull request property pugs QAST Rakudo Reify Repository RHS roast Roles rvalue SAP Semilist Sigil Sigilless variable Spesh STD Stub Symbol Synopsis Syntax analysis Test suite TheDamian TimToady token Thunk Tight and loose precedence twine Type objects Type smiley value UB Value type Variable Variable interpolation Virtual machine WAT whitespace 6model
Grammar tutorial Before we start Why grammars? When would I use grammars? The broad concept of grammars Getting more technical The conceptual overview The technical overview Learning by example - a REST contrivance Adding some flexibility Inheriting from a grammar Adding some constraints Putting our RESTful grammar together Grammar actions Grammars by example with actions Keeping grammars with actions tidy with make and made Add actions directly
Grammars Named Regexes Rules Creating grammars Proto regexes Special tokens TOP ws sym "Always succeed" assertion Methods in grammars Dynamic variables in grammars Attributes in grammars Passing arguments into grammars Action objects
Hashes and maps The associative role and associative classes Mutable hashes and immutable maps Hash assignment Hash slices Non-string keys (object hash) Constraint value types Looping over hash keys and values In place editing of values
Haskell to Raku - nutshell Types Types vs values Maybe Data definitions Type aliases and subsets Typeclasses Functions Definitions and signatures Pattern Guards Argument Currying Composing Case / matching Lists List comprehensions Fold takeWhile Map Ranges Laziness vs eagerness Contexts (let-in / where) Parsers Parser combinators vs grammars Tail Call Optimization or Tail Call Elimination
Brief introduction
Input/Output Reading from files Line by line Writing to files Copying, renaming, and removing files Checking files and directories Getting a directory listing Creating and removing directories
Input/Output the definitive guide The basics Navigating paths What's an IO::Path anyway? Path parts Working with files Writing into files Writing new content Appending content Reading from files Using IO::Path Using IO::Handle The wrong way to do things Leave $*SPEC alone Stringifying IO::Path Be mindful of $*CWD temp the $*CWD
Inter-process communication Running programs The Proc object The Proc::Async object
Iterating The Iterator and Iterable roles How to iterate: contextualizing and topic variables Classic loops and why we do not like them
JavaScript (Node.js) to Raku - nutshell Basic syntax "Hello, world!" Variables Operators Assignment Equality Smartmatching Numeric Bitwise Checking for definedness Custom operators and operator overloading Control flow if/else switch for, while, and do/while do Types Creating types Using types Comparing JavaScript and Raku types Functions Object-oriented programming Asynchronous programming The networking API Net HTTP/HTTPS DNS Punycode The filesystem API Modules and packages
Lists, sequences, and arrays Literal lists The @ sigil Reset a list container Iteration Single Argument Rule Testing for elements Sequences Using .iterator Slips Lazy lists Immutability List contexts List assignment context Flattening "context" Argument list (Capture) context Slice indexing context Range as slice Array constructor context Arrays Typing Fixed size arrays Itemization Literal arrays Mutability Assigning Binding
Doing math with Raku Sets Arithmetic Sequences Mathematical constants Numerical integration of ordinary differential equations Requirements Malthus model Step by step explanation Logistic model Strong Allee Effect Weak Allee Effect Extra info
Module packages What are modules? When to use modules Working with modules Modules on disk File and module naming The unit keyword What happens if I omit module? Lexical aliasing and safety
Modules Creating and using modules Looking for and installing modules. Basic structure Loading and basic importing need use require Lexical module loading Exporting and selective importing is export UNIT::EXPORT::* EXPORT Introspection Finding installed modules Testing modules and a distribution Distributing modules Preparing the module Upload your module to CPAN Upload your module to zef ecosystem Upload your module to p6c Modules and tools related to module authoring Contact information
Core modules CompUnit::* modules and roles NativeCall modules Other modules
Module development utilities Module builder and authoring tools Tests NativeCall Sample modules
Metaobject protocol (MOP) Metamethods WHAT WHICH WHO WHERE HOW WHY DEFINITE VAR Metaclass methods Structure of the metaobject system Bootstrapping concerns Composition time and static reasoning Power and responsibility Power, convenience and pitfalls
Native calling interface Getting started NativeCall helper module Changing names Passing and returning values Specifying the native representation Basic use of pointers Function pointers Arrays CArray methods CArray sub-arrays Structs CUnions Embedding CStructs and CUnions with HAS Notes on memory management In your Raku code... In your C code... Typed pointers Strings Explicit memory management Buffers and blobs Function arguments Library paths and names ABI/API version Routine Calling into the standard library Exported variables C++ support Helper functions sub nativecast sub cglobal sub nativesizeof sub explicitly-manage Examples PostgreSQL MySQL Microsoft Windows Short tutorial on calling a C function Platform Specific Notes MacOS - DYLD_LIBRARY_PATH is ignored
Raku native types Types with native representation Types with native representation and size The void type Atomic types Rakudo specific native types
Newline handling in Raku
Numerics Int Num Complex Rational Rat Degradation to Num FatRat Printing rationals Division by zero Zero-denominator rationals Allomorphs Available allomorphs Coercion of allomorphs Object identity Native numerics Available native numerics Creating native numerics Overflow/Underflow Auto-boxing Default values Native dispatch Atomic operations Numeric infectiousness
Object orientation Using objects Type objects Classes Attributes Methods Class and instance methods self Private methods Submethods Inheritance Delegation Object construction Object cloning Roles Applying roles Stubs Inheritance Pecking order Automatic role punning Parameterized roles Mixins of roles Metaobject programming and introspection
Opener graphemes
Operators Operator precedence Operator associativity Operator classification Substitution operators s/// in-place substitution S/// non-destructive substitution tr/// in-place transliteration TR/// non-destructive transliteration Assignment operators Metaoperators Negated relational operators Reversed operators Hyper operators Reduction metaoperators Cross metaoperators Zip metaoperator Sequential operators Nesting of metaoperators Term precedence term < > term ( ) term { } circumfix [ ] Terms Method postfix precedence postcircumfix [ ] postcircumfix { } postcircumfix <> postcircumfix < > postcircumfix « » postcircumfix ( ) methodop . methodop .& methodop .= methodop .^ methodop .? methodop .+ methodop .* methodop ». / methodop >>. methodop .postfix / .postcircumfix methodop .: methodop .:: postfix ,= Autoincrement precedence prefix ++ prefix -- postfix ++ postfix -- Exponentiation precedence infix ** Symbolic unary precedence prefix ? prefix ! prefix + prefix - prefix ~ prefix | prefix +^ prefix ~^ prefix ?^ prefix ^ Dotty infix precedence infix .= infix . Multiplicative precedence infix * infix / infix div infix % infix %% infix mod infix +& infix +< infix +> infix ~& infix ~< infix ~> infix ?& infix gcd infix lcm Additive precedence infix + infix - infix +| infix +^ infix ~| infix ~^ infix ?^ infix ?| Replication precedence infix x infix xx Concatenation infix ~ infix o, infix ∘ Junctive AND (all) precedence infix & infix (&), infix ∩ infix (.), infix ⊍ Junctive OR (any) precedence infix | infix (|), infix ∪ infix (+), infix ⊎ infix (-), infix ∖ infix ^ infix (^), infix ⊖ Named unary precedence prefix temp prefix let Nonchaining binary precedence infix does infix but infix cmp infix coll infix unicmp infix leg infix <=> infix .. infix ..^ infix ^.. infix ^..^ Chaining binary precedence infix ==, infix ⩵ infix !=, infix ≠ infix < infix <=, infix ≤ infix > infix >=, infix ≥ infix eq infix ne infix gt infix ge infix lt infix le infix before infix after infix eqv infix ===, infix ⩶ infix =:= infix ~~ infix =~= infix (elem), infix ∈ infix ∉ infix (==), infix ≡ infix ≢ infix (cont), infix ∋ infix ∌ infix (<), infix ⊂ infix ⊄ infix (<=), infix ⊆ infix ⊈ infix (>), infix ⊃ infix ⊅ infix (>=), infix ⊇ infix ⊉ Tight AND precedence infix && Tight OR precedence infix || infix ^^ infix // infix min infix max infix minmax Conditional operator precedence infix ?? !! infix ff infix ^ff infix ff^ infix ^ff^ infix fff infix ^fff infix fff^ infix ^fff^ Item assignment precedence infix = (item assignment) infix => Loose unary precedence prefix not prefix so Comma operator precedence infix , infix : List infix precedence infix Z infix X infix ... List prefix precedence infix = (list assignment) infix := infix ::= listop ... listop !!! listop ??? Reduction operators Loose AND precedence infix and infix andthen infix notandthen Loose OR precedence infix or infix orelse infix xor Sequencer precedence infix ==> infix <== Identity
Creating operators
Packages Names Package-qualified names Pseudo-packages Looking up names Interpolating into names Direct lookup Package lookup Class member lookup Globals Programmatic use of modules
Performance First, profile your code Time with now - INIT now Profile locally Profile compiling Create or view benchmarks Share problems Solve problems Line by line Routine by routine Speed up type-checks and call resolution Choose better algorithms Change sequential/blocking code to parallel/non-blocking Use existing high performance code Make the Rakudo compiler generate faster code Still need more ideas? Not getting the results you need/want?
Phasers Phasers Execution order Program execution phasers BEGIN CHECK INIT END Block phasers ENTER LEAVE KEEP UNDO PRE POST Loop phasers FIRST NEXT LAST Exception handling phasers CATCH CONTROL Object phasers COMPOSE (Not yet implemented) Asynchronous phasers LAST QUIT CLOSE DOC phasers DOC
Pod6 Block structure Delimited blocks Configuration information Paragraph blocks Abbreviated blocks Declarator blocks Block types Headings Ordinary paragraphs Code blocks I/O blocks Lists Unordered lists Definition lists Multi-level lists Multi-paragraph lists Tables Pod6 comments Semantic blocks Formatting codes Bold Italic Underlined Code Links Placement links Nested Nested Comments Notes Keyboard input Replaceable Terminal output Unicode Verbatim text Nested Indexing terms Rendering Pod HTML Markdown Text Accessing Pod
Pragmas v6.x MONKEY-GUTS MONKEY-SEE-NO-EVAL MONKEY-TYPING MONKEY dynamic-scope experimental fatal internals invocant isms lib newline nqp parameters precompilation soft strict trace v6 variables worries
Python to Raku - nutshell Basic syntax Hello, world Statement separators Blocks Variables Scope Control flow Lambdas, functions and subroutines> List comprehensions Classes and objects Decorators Context managers input Tuples
Quoting constructs The Q lang Literal strings: Q Escaping: q Interpolation: qq Interpolating variables Interpolating closures Interpolating escape codes preventing interpolation and handling missing values Word quoting: qw Word quoting: < > Word quoting with quote protection: qww Word quoting with interpolation: qqw Word quoting with interpolation and quote protection: qqww Word quoting with interpolation and quote protection: « » Shell quoting: qx Shell quoting with interpolation: qqx Heredocs: :to Unquoting Regexes
Ruby to Raku - nutshell Basic syntax Statement ending semicolons Whitespace . Method calls, .public_send Variables, sigils, scope, and common types Variable scope $ Scalar @ Array % Hash & Sub * Slurpy params / argument expansion Twigils : Symbols Operators == != < > <= >= Comparisons <=> Three-way comparisons ~~ Smartmatch operator & | ^ Numeric bitwise ops & | ^ Boolean ops &. Conditional chaining operator << >> Numeric shift left, right ops, shovel operator => and : Key-value separators ? : Ternary operator + String concatenation String interpolation Compound statements Conditionals if elsif else unless case-when Loops while until for .each Flow interruption statements Regular expressions ( regex / regexp ) .match method and =~ operator .sub and .sub! Regex options Whitespace is ignored, most things must be quoted Special matchers generally fall under the <> syntax Longest token matching (LTM) displaces alternation File-related operations Reading the lines of a text file into an array Iterating over the lines of a text file Object orientation Basic classes, methods, attributes Private methods Going meta Environment variables Raku module library path Misc. Importing specific functions from a module OptionParser, parsing command-line flags RubyGems, external libraries
Regexes Lexical conventions Anonymous regex definition syntax Named regex definition syntax Regex readability: whitespace and comments Match syntax Literals and metacharacters Wildcards Character classes Backslashed character classes \n and \N \t and \T \h and \H \v and \V \s and \S \d and \D \w and \W \c and \C \x and \X Predefined character classes Predefined Regexes Unicode properties Enumerated character classes and ranges Quantifiers One or more: + Zero or more: * Zero or one: ? General quantifier: ** min..max Modified quantifier: %, %% Preventing backtracking: : Greedy versus frugal quantifiers: ? Alternation: || Longest alternation: | Quoted lists are LTM matches Conjunction: && Conjunction: & Anchors Start of string and end of string Start of line and end of line Word boundary Left and right word boundary Summary of anchors Zero-width assertions Lookaround assertions Lookahead assertions Lookbehind assertions Grouping and capturing Capturing Non-capturing grouping Capture numbers Named captures Capture markers: <( )> Substitution Lexical conventions Replacing string literals Wildcards and character classes Capturing groups Common adverbs S/// non-destructive substitution Tilde for nesting structures Recursive Regexes Subrules Regex interpolation Regex Boolean condition check Adverbs Regex adverbs Ignorecase Ignoremark Ratchet Sigspace Perl compatibility adverb Matching adverbs Positional adverbs Counting Continue Exhaustive Global Pos Overlap Substitution adverbs Samecase Samemark Samespace Backtracking $/ changes each time a regular expression is matched Best practices and gotchas
Regexes: best practices and gotchas Code layout Keep it small What to match Matching whitespace
Sets, bags, and mixes Introduction Operators with set semantics Set operators that return Bool infix (elem), infix ∈ infix ∉ infix (cont), infix ∋ infix ∌ infix (<=), infix ⊆ infix ⊈ infix (<), infix ⊂ infix ⊄ infix (>=), infix ⊇ infix ⊉ infix (>), infix ⊃ infix ⊅ infix (==), infix ≡ infix ≢ Set operators that return a QuantHash infix (|), infix ∪ infix (&), infix ∩ infix (-), infix ∖ infix (^), infix ⊖ Set operators that return a Baggy infix (.), infix ⊍ infix (+), infix ⊎ Terms related to set operators term ∅
Statement prefixes lazy eager hyper, race quietly try do sink once gather start react supply
Data structures Scalar structures Complex data structures Functional structures Defining and constraining data structures Infinite structures and laziness Introspection
Subscripts Basics Positional subscripting Associative subscripting Applying subscripts Nonexistent elements From the end Slices Truncating slices Zen slices Multiple dimensions Modifying elements Autovivification Binding Adverbs :exists :delete :p :kv :k :v Custom types Custom type example Methods to implement for positional subscripting method elems method AT-POS method EXISTS-POS method DELETE-POS method ASSIGN-POS method BIND-POS method STORE Methods to implement for associative subscripting method AT-KEY method EXISTS-KEY method DELETE-KEY method ASSIGN-KEY method BIND-KEY method STORE
Syntax Lexical conventions Free form Unspace Separating statements with semicolons Implied separator rule (for statements ending in blocks) Comments Single-line comments Multi-line / embedded comments Pod comments Identifiers Ordinary identifiers Extended identifiers Compound identifiers term term:<> Statements and expressions Terms Variables Barewords (constants, type names) Packages and qualified names Literals String literals Number literals Int literals Rat literals Num literals Complex literals Pair literals Arrow pairs Adverbial pairs (colon pairs) Boolean literals Array literals Hash literals Regex literals Signature literals Declarations Variable declaration Subroutine declaration Package, Module, Class, Role, and Grammar declaration Multi-dispatch declaration Subroutine calls Precedence drop Operators Metaoperators
System interaction Getting arguments through the command line Getting arguments interactively Running programs synchronously and asynchronously Making operating system calls through the native API
Pod6 tables Restrictions Best practices Good tables Bad tables Ugly tables
Date and time functions
Terms Literals Int Rat Num Str Regex Pair List * Identifier terms term self term now term time term rand term π term pi term τ term tau term 𝑒 term e term i term ∅ Variables Constants
Testing Writing tests Thread safety Running tests Test plans Testing return values By string comparison By approximate numeric comparison By structural comparison By arbitrary comparison By object type By method name By role By regex Testing modules Testing exceptions Grouping tests Skipping tests Manual control
Traits The is trait is applied to classes. is repr and native representations. is on routines is implementation-detail trait method is-implementation-detail
Traps to avoid Variables and constants Constants are computed at compile time Assignment of Nil can produce a different value, usually Any Using a block to interpolate anon state vars Using set subroutines on Associative when the value is falsy Blocks Beware of empty "blocks" Objects Assigning to attributes BUILD prevents automatic attribute initialization from constructor arguments Whitespace Whitespace in regexes does not match literally Ambiguities in parsing Block vs. Hash slice ambiguity Reduction vs. Array constructor ambiguity Less than vs. Word quoting/Associative indexing Exclusive sequences vs. sequences with Ranges Captures Containers versus values in a capture Cool tricks Strings are not Lists, so beware indexing Lists become strings, so beware .index()ing Lists become strings, so beware .contains() Numeric literals are parsed before coercion Getting a random item from a List Lists numify to their number of elements in numeric context Arrays Referencing the last element of an array Typed array parameters Using «» quoting when you don't need it Strings Quotes and interpolation Beware of variables used within qqx Strings are not iterable .chars gets the number of graphemes, not Codepoints All text is normalized by default Allomorphs generally follow numeric semantics Case-insensitive comparison of strings Pairs Constants on the left-hand side of pair notation Scalar values within Pair Sets, bags and mixes Sets, bags and mixes do not have a fixed order Operators Junctions Exclusive sequence operator String ranges/Sequences Topicalizing operators Fat arrow and constants Infix operator assignment Regexes $x vs <$x>, and $(code) vs <{code}> | vs ||: which branch will win $/ changes each time a regular expression is matched vs. < foo>: named rules vs. quoted lists Non-capturing, non-global matching in list context Common precedence mistakes Adverbs and precedence Ranges and precedence Loose Boolean operators Exponentiation operator and prefix minus Method operator calls and prefix minus Subroutine and method calls Named parameters Argument count limit Phasers and implicit return LEAVE needs explicit return from a sub to run Input and output Closing open filehandles and pipes IO::Path stringification Splitting the input data into lines Proc::Async and print Using .stdout without .lines Exception handling Sunk Proc Using shortcuts The ^ twigil Using » and map interchangeably Word splitting in « » Scope Using a once block LEAVE phaser and exit LEAVE phaser may run sooner than you think Grammars Using regexes within grammar's actions Using certain names for rules/token/regexes Unfortunate generalization :exists with more than one key Using […] metaoperator with a list of lists Using [~] for concatenating a list of blobs Maps Beware of nesting Maps in sink context Smartmatching Smartmatch and WhateverCode
Type system Definition of a Raku type Default types Type objects Undefinedness Coercion Type declarators class Mixins Introspection Metaclass Private attributes Methods Inheritance and multis Only method submethod BUILD Fallback method Reserved method names Methods in package scope Setting attributes with namesake variables and methods trait is nodal trait handles trait is trait is rw trait is required trait hides trait trusts Augmenting a class role Auto-punning trait does Parameterized As type constraints enum Typing Enums Metaclass Methods Coercion module package grammar subset Versioning, authorship, and API version.
Unicode Filehandles and I/O Normalization UTF8-C8 Entering unicode codepoints and codepoint sequences Name aliases Named sequences Emoji sequences
Unicode versus ASCII symbols Alphabetic characters Numeric characters Numeric values Whitespace characters Other acceptable single codepoints Atomic operators Multiple codepoints
Entering unicode characters XCompose (Linux) Getting compose working in all programs ibus XKB (Linux) Single-user configuration System-wide configuration KDE How to enter Unicode characters using a two-key combination WinCompose (Windows) Terminals, shells, and editors: XTerm URxvt Unix shell Screen Vim vim-raku Emacs Some characters useful in Raku Smart quotes Guillemets Set/bag operators Mathematical symbols Greek characters Superscripts and subscripts
Variables Sigils Item and list assignment Sigilless variables Twigils The * twigil The ? twigil The ! twigil The . twigil The ^ twigil The : twigil A note on ^ and : The = twigil The ~ twigil Variable declarators and scope The my declarator The our declarator Declaring a list of variables with lexical (my) or package (our) scope The has declarator The anon declarator The state declarator The $ variable The @ variable The % variable The augment declarator The temp prefix The let prefix The constant prefix Type constraints and initialization Default defined variables pragma Special variables Pre-defined lexical variables The $_ variable The $/ variable Positional attributes Named attributes Thread-safety issues The $! variable Compile-time variables %?RESOURCES Introspection compile-time variables Rakudo-specific compile-time variables &?ROUTINE &?BLOCK $?DISTRIBUTION Dynamic variables Argument related variables $*ARGFILES @*ARGS &*ARGS-TO-CAPTURE &*GENERATE-USAGE Special filehandles: STDIN, STDOUT and STDERR Runtime environment %*ENV $*REPO $*INIT-INSTANT $*TZ $*CWD $*KERNEL $*DISTRO $*VM $*RAKU $*PERL $*PID $*PROGRAM-NAME $*PROGRAM &*EXIT $*EXECUTABLE $*EXECUTABLE-NAME $*USAGE $*USER $*GROUP $*HOMEDRIVE $*HOMEPATH $*HOME $*SPEC $*TMPDIR $*THREAD $*SCHEDULER $*SAMPLER Runtime variables $*DEFAULT-READ-ELEMS $*COLLATION $*RAT-OVERFLOW $*TOLERANCE Naming conventions
class int
Debugging Core debugging features The trace pragma Dumper function (dd) Using backtraces Environment variables Ecosystem debugging modules Debugger::UI::CommandLine Grammar::Debugger (and Grammar::Tracer in the same distribution) Trait::Traced
Environment variables used by the raku command line Module loading Error message verbosity and strictness Affecting precompilation Line editor Other WINDOWS PECULIARITIES Non-console applications AUTHORS
class AST
class Allomorph Methods method ACCEPTS method Bool method chomp method chop method comb method fc method flip method lc method pred method raku method samecase method samemark method split method Str method subst method subst-mutate method substr method substr-rw method succ method tc method tclc method trim method trim-leading method trim-trailing method uc method WHICH Operators infix cmp infix eqv
class Any Methods method ACCEPTS method any method all method one method none method list method push routine reverse method sort routine map method deepmap method duckmap method nodemap method flat method eager method elems method end method pairup sub item method Array method List method serial method Hash method hash method Slip method Map method Seq method Bag method BagHash method Set method SetHash method Mix method MixHash method Supply routine min routine max routine minmax method minpairs method maxpairs method keys method flatmap method roll method iterator method pick method skip method are method prepend method unshift routine first method unique method repeated method squish method permutations method join routine categorize routine classify routine reduce routine produce method pairs method antipairs method invert routine kv method toggle method head method tail method tree method nl-out method combinations method grep method append method values method collate method cache method batch method rotor method sum
class Array Methods method gist method pop method push method append method elems method clone method flat method shift routine unshift routine prepend routine splice method shape method default method of method dynamic method List method Slip
role Associative Methods method of method keyof Methods that classes mixing Associative should provide method AT-KEY method EXISTS-KEY method STORE See also
class Attribute Traits Trait is default Trait is required trait is DEPRECATED trait is rw trait is built Methods method name method package method has_accessor method rw method readonly method required method type method get_value method set_value method gist Optional introspection DEPRECATED
class Backtrace Methods method new method gist method Str method next-interesting-index method outer-caller-idx method nice method full method list method summary method concise method map method flat
class Backtrace::Frame Methods method file method line method code method subname method is-hidden method is-routine method is-setting
class Bag Creating Bag objects Operators Subroutines sub bag Note on reverse and ordering See also
class BagHash Creating BagHash objects Updating BagHash Objects Operators Note on reverse and ordering. method add method remove See Also
role Baggy Methods method new-from-pairs method grab method grabpairs method pick method pickpairs method roll method pairs method antipairs method invert method classify-list method categorize-list method keys method values method kv method kxxv method elems method total method default method hash method Bool method Set method SetHash method ACCEPTS See Also
role Blob Methods method new method Bool method Capture method elems method bytes method chars method Str method Stringy method decode method list method gist method subbuf method allocate method unpack sub pack method reverse Methods on blob8 only (6.d, 2018.12 and later) method read-uint8 method read-int8 method read-uint16 method read-int16 method read-uint32 method read-int32 method read-uint64 method read-int64 method read-uint128 method read-int128 method read-num32 method read-num64 Methods on blob8 only (6.d, 2019.03 and later) method read-ubits method read-bits
class Block
enum Bool Methods method ACCEPTS routine succ routine pred routine enums routine pick routine roll routine Int routine Numeric Operators prefix ? prefix so
role Buf Methods method subbuf-rw routine subbuf-rw method reallocate method list method push method pop method append method prepend method shift method unshift method splice Methods on buf8 only (6.d, 2018.12 and later) method write-uint8 method write-int8 method write-uint16 method write-int16 method write-uint32 method write-int32 method write-uint64 method write-int64 method write-uint128 method write-int128 method write-num32 method write-num64 Methods on buf8 only (6.d, 2019.03 and later) method write-ubits method write-bits Methods on buf8 only (6.d, 2019.10 and later) method write-uint8 method write-int8 method write-uint16 method write-int16 method write-uint32 method write-int32 method write-uint64 method write-int64 method write-uint128 method write-int128 method write-num32 method write-num64 method write-ubits method write-bits
role CX::Done Methods method message
role CX::Emit Methods method message
role CX::Last Methods method message
role CX::Next Methods method message
role CX::Proceed Methods method message
role CX::Redo Methods method message
role CX::Return Methods method message
role CX::Succeed Methods method message
role CX::Take Methods method message
role CX::Warn Methods method new
class CallFrame Methods method code method file method line method annotations method my Routines sub callframe
role Callable Methods method CALL-ME method Capture
class Cancellation Methods method cancel
class Capture Methods method list method hash method elems method keys method values method kv method pairs method antipairs method Bool method Capture method Numeric
class Channel Methods method send method receive method poll method close method list method closed method fail method Capture method Supply sub await
class Code Methods method ACCEPTS method arity method assuming method count method of method signature method cando method Str method file method line method is-implementation-detail
class Collation Methods method set method primary method secondary method tertiary method quaternary
class CompUnit Methods method auth method distribution method from method precompiled method repo method repo-id method short-name method version
role CompUnit::PrecompilationRepository Methods method new-unit method load-unit method load-repo-id method store-file method store-unit method store-repo-id method delete method delete-by-compiler
role CompUnit::Repository Methods method resolve method need method load method loaded
class CompUnit::Repository::FileSystem Methods method candidates method files method resolve method need method load method loaded method short-id
class CompUnit::Repository::Installation Methods method install method uninstall method candidates method files method resolve method need method load method loaded method short-id
class Compiler Methods method id method release method codename method backend method build-date method verbose-config
class Complex Operators postfix i Methods method new method re method im method reals method isNaN method polar method floor method ceiling method round method truncate routine abs method conj method sqrt method gist method raku method Real sub infix:<**>
class ComplexStr Methods method new method Capture method Complex method Numeric method Real Operators infix ===
class Cool Methods routine abs method conj method EVAL routine sqrt method sign method rand routine sin routine asin routine cos routine acos routine tan routine atan routine atan2 routine sec routine asec routine cosec routine acosec routine cotan routine acotan routine sinh routine asinh routine cosh routine acosh routine tanh routine atanh routine sech routine asech routine cosech routine acosech routine cotanh routine acotanh routine cis routine log routine log10 routine log2 routine exp method unpolar routine round routine floor method fmt routine ceiling routine truncate routine ord method path routine chr routine chars routine codes routine flip routine trim routine trim-leading routine trim-trailing routine lc routine uc routine fc routine tc routine tclc routine wordcase routine samecase routine uniprop sub uniprops routine uniname routine uninames routine unimatch routine chop routine chomp routine substr routine substr-rw routine ords routine chrs routine split routine lines method words routine comb method contains routine index routine rindex method match routine roots method subst method trans method IO method sprintf method printf method Complex method FatRat method Int method Num method Rat method Real method UInt
class CurrentThreadScheduler
class Date Methods method new method new-from-daycount method last-date-in-month method first-date-in-month method clone method today method truncated-to method succ method pred method Str method gist method Date method DateTime Functions sub sleep sub sleep-timer sub sleep-until sub infix:<-> sub infix:<+>
class DateTime Methods method new method now method clone method hh-mm-ss method hour method minute method second method whole-second method timezone method offset method offset-in-minutes method offset-in-hours method Str method Instant method day-fraction method julian-date method modified-julian-date method posix method truncated-to method Date method DateTime method utc method in-timezone method local sub infix:<-> sub infix:<+> sub infix:«<=>» sub infix: sub infix:«<» sub infix:«>» sub infix:«<=» sub infix:«>=» sub infix:«==» sub infix:«!=»
role Dateish Methods method year method month method day method formatter method is-leap-year method day-of-month method day-of-week method day-of-year method days-in-month method week method week-number method week-year method weekday-of-month method yyyy-mm-dd method mm-dd-yyyy method dd-mm-yyyy method daycount method IO method earlier method later
role Distribution Required Methods method meta method content
class Distribution::Hash Methods method new method meta method content
class Distribution::Locally Methods method prefix method content
class Distribution::Path Methods method new method meta method content
class Distribution::Resource Methods method IO
class Distro Methods method is-win method path-sep method release
class Duration
role Encoding Methods method name method alternative-names method decoder method encoder
class Encoding::Registry Methods method name method find
enum Endian Methods routine Numeric
role Enumeration Methods method key method value method enums method kv method pair method CALL-ME method pick method roll method pred method succ method Numeric method Int method Real method ===
class Exception Methods method message method backtrace method throw method resume method rethrow routine fail method gist routine die sub warn
class Failure Methods method new method handled method exception method self method Bool method Capture method defined method list sub fail
class FatRat Methods method raku
class ForeignCode Methods method arity method count method signature method name method gist method Str
class Grammar Methods method parse method subparse method parsefile
class Hash Methods method classify-list Simple classification Multi-level classification :&as value modifier method categorize-list Simple categorization Multi-level categorization :&as value modifier method push method append method default method keyof method of routine dynamic Subscript Adverbs :exists :delete :p :v and :k
class HyperSeq Methods method iterator method grep method map method invert method hyper method race method serial method is-lazy method sink
class HyperWhatever Standalone term Currying
role IO
class IO::ArgFiles Variables $*ARGFILES
class IO::CatHandle Methods method new method chomp method nl-in method close method comb method DESTROY method encoding method eof method get method getc method handles method IO method lines method lock method native-descriptor method next-handle method on-switch method open method opened method path method read method readchars method seek method tell method slurp method split method Str method Supply method t method unlock method words NYI Methods method flush method nl-out method out-buffer method print method printf method print-nl method put method say method write method WRITE method READ method EOF
class IO::Handle Methods method open method comb method chomp routine get routine getc Buffering terminals Waiting for potential combiners submethod DESTROY method gist method eof method encoding utf16, utf16le and utf16be Examples routine lines method lock method unlock routine words method split method spurt method print method print-nl method printf method out-buffer method put method say method read method readchars method write method seek method tell method slurp-rest method slurp method Supply method path method IO method Str routine close method flush method native-descriptor method nl-in method nl-out method opened method t Creating Custom Handles method WRITE method READ method EOF Related roles and classes
class IO::Notification Methods method watch-path
class IO::Notification::Change Methods method path method event method IO method gist
class IO::Path Methods method new attribute CWD attribute SPEC attribute path method ACCEPTS method basename method add method child method cleanup method comb method split method extension method dirname method volume method parts method raku method gist method Str method succ method open method pred method watch method is-absolute method is-relative method absolute method relative method parent method resolve routine dir File test operators method e method d method f method s method l method r method w method rw method x method rwx method z method sibling method words method lines routine slurp method spurt method chdir method mkdir routine rmdir method chmod routine rename routine copy routine move method Numeric method Int routine symlink routine link routine unlink method IO method SPEC File timestamp retrieval method modified method accessed method changed File permissions retrieval method mode
class IO::Path::Cygwin Methods method new method raku
class IO::Path::Parts Methods method new attribute volume attribute dirname attribute basename Previous implementations
class IO::Path::QNX Methods method new method raku
class IO::Path::Unix Methods method new method raku
class IO::Path::Win32 Methods method new method raku
class IO::Pipe Methods method close method IO method path method proc
role IO::Socket Methods method recv method read routine get method print method write method put method close method native-descriptor
class IO::Socket::Async Methods method connect method listen method udp method bind-udp method print method print-to method write method write-to method Supply method close method socket-host method peer-host method socket-port method peer-port method native-descriptor
class IO::Socket::Async::ListenSocket Methods method socket-host method socket-port method native-descriptor
class IO::Socket::INET Methods method new Methods method get method lines method accept
class IO::Spec About sub-classes IO::Spec::* Methods
class IO::Spec::Cygwin Methods method abs2rel method canonpath method catdir method catpath method is-absolute method join method rel2abs method split method splitpath method tmpdir
class IO::Spec::QNX Methods method canonpath
class IO::Spec::Unix Methods method abs2rel method basename method canonpath method catdir method catfile method catpath method curdir method curupdir method devnull method dir-sep method extension method is-absolute method join method path method rel2abs method rootdir method split method splitdir method splitpath method tmpdir method updir
class IO::Spec::Win32 Methods method basename method canonpath method catdir method catfile method catpath method devnull method dir-sep method is-absolute method join method path method rel2abs method rootdir method split method splitdir method splitpath method tmpdir
class IO::Special Methods method new method what method WHICH method Str method IO method e method d method f method s method l method r method w method x method modified method accessed method changed method mode
class Instant Future Leap Seconds Methods method from-posix method to-posix method Date method DateTime
class Int Methods method new method Capture routine chr routine expmod method polymod routine is-prime routine lsb routine msb routine unival method Range method Bridge Operators infix div
class IntStr Methods method new method Int method Numeric method Real Operators infix ===
role Iterable Methods method iterator method flat method lazy method hyper Options degree and batch method race
role Iterator IterationEnd Methods method pull-one method push-exactly method push-at-least method push-all method push-until-lazy method is-deterministic method is-lazy method sink-all method skip-one method skip-at-least method skip-at-least-pull-one Predictive iterators
class Junction Failures and exceptions Smartmatching Methods method new method defined method Bool method Str method iterator method gist method raku infix ~ See Also
class Kernel Methods method arch method archname method bits method cpu-cores method cpu-usage method free-memory method total-memory method endian method hardware method hostname method release method signal method signals
class Label Methods method name method file method line method Str method next method redo method last
class List Immutability Items, flattening and sigils Methods method ACCEPTS routine list routine elems routine end routine keys routine values routine kv routine pairs routine antipairs routine invert routine join routine map method flatmap method gist routine grep routine first method head method tail routine categorize routine classify method Bool method Str method Int method Numeric method Capture routine pick routine roll routine eager routine reverse routine rotate routine sort routine reduce routine produce routine combinations routine permutations method rotor method batch routine cross routine zip routine roundrobin routine sum method fmt method from method to method sink method Set Operators infix cmp
class Lock Methods method protect method lock method unlock method condition
class Lock::Async Methods method lock method unlock method protect method protect-or-queue-on-recursion method with-lock-hidden-from-recursion-check
class Lock::ConditionVariable Methods method wait method signal
class Macro
class Map Methods method new method elems method ACCEPTS method gist method keys method values method pairs method antipairs method invert method kv method list method sort method Int method Numeric method Bool method Capture
class Match Methods method pos method target method chars method clone method orig method from method to method made routine make method actions method ast method Bool method Str method Int method caps method chunks method list method hash method prematch method postmatch method replace-with infix eqv
role Metamodel::AttributeContainer Methods method add_attribute method attributes method set_rw method rw
role Metamodel::C3MRO Methods method compute_mro method mro method mro_unhidden
class Metamodel::ClassHOW Methods method add_fallback method can method lookup method compose method new_type
role Metamodel::ConcreteRoleHOW
role Metamodel::CurriedRoleHOW
class Metamodel::DefiniteHOW Methods method new_type method name method shortname method base_type method definite method nominalize method find_method method type_check method accepts_type
role Metamodel::Documenting Methods method set_why method WHY
class Metamodel::EnumHOW Methods method new_type method add_parent method set_export_callback method export_callback method compose method is_composed method compose_values method set_composalizer method composalizer method add_enum_value method enum_values method elems method enum_from_value method enum_value_list
role Metamodel::Finalization Methods method setup_finalization method destroyers
role Metamodel::MROBasedMethodDispatch Methods method find_method method find_method_qualified method can method publish_method_cache
role Metamodel::MethodContainer Methods method add_method method methods method method_table method lookup
role Metamodel::Mixins Methods method set_is_mixin method is_mixin method set_mixin_attribute method mixin_attribute method setup_mixin_cache method flush_cache method generate_mixin method mixin
role Metamodel::MultipleInheritance Methods method add_parent method parents method hides method hidden method set_hidden
role Metamodel::Naming Methods method name method set_name
class Metamodel::PackageHOW Methods method archetypes method new method new_type compose is_composed
role Metamodel::ParametricRoleGroupHOW
role Metamodel::ParametricRoleHOW
class Metamodel::Primitives Methods method create_type method set_package method install_method_cache method configure_type_checking method configure_destroy method compose_type method rebless method is_type
role Metamodel::PrivateMethodContainer Methods method add_private_method method private_method_table method private_methods method private_method_names method find_private_method
role Metamodel::RoleContainer Methods method add_role method roles_to_compose
role Metamodel::RolePunning
role Metamodel::Stashing Methods method add_stash
role Metamodel::Trusting Methods method add_trustee method trusts method is_trusted
role Metamodel::Versioning Methods method ver method auth method api method set_ver method set_auth method set_api
class Method
class Mix Creating Mix objects Operators sub mix Methods method Bag method BagHash method reverse method total Note on order See Also
class MixHash Creating MixHash objects Operators Note on reverse and ordering. Methods method Bag method BagHash See Also
role Mixy Methods method roll method pick method grab method kxxv See Also
class Mu Methods method iterator method defined routine defined routine isa routine does routine Bool method Capture method Str routine gist method perl method raku method item method self method clone method new method bless method CREATE method print method put method say method ACCEPTS method WHICH method WHERE method WHY trait is export method return method return-rw method emit method take routine take routine take-rw method so method not
class NFC
class NFD
class NFKC
class NFKD
class Nil Methods method append method gist method Str method new method prepend method push method unshift method ords method chrs method FALLBACK method Numeric
class Num Inf NaN method new method rand sub srand method Capture method Int method Rat method FatRat method Num method Str method Bridge
class NumStr Methods method new method Num method Numeric method Real Operators infix ===
role Numeric Methods method Numeric method narrow method ACCEPTS routine log routine log10 routine log2 routine exp method roots routine abs routine sqrt method conj method Bool method succ method pred
class ObjAt Methods infix eqv
enum Order Operators infix cmp infix <=>
class Pair Methods method new method ACCEPTS method antipair method key method value infix cmp method fmt method kv method pairs method antipairs method invert method keys method values method freeze method Str method Pair
class Parameter Methods method name method usage-name method sigil method type method coerce_type method constraints method named method named_names method positional method slurpy method twigil method optional method raw method capture method rw method copy method readonly method invocant method default method type_captures method sub_signature method prefix method suffix Runtime creation of Parameter objects (6.d, 2019.03 and later)
class Perl
class Pod::Block Methods method contents method config
class Pod::Block::Code
class Pod::Block::Comment
class Pod::Block::Declarator Methods method leading method trailing method WHEREFORE
class Pod::Block::Named Methods method name
class Pod::Block::Para
class Pod::Block::Table Methods method caption method headers
class Pod::Defn Methods method term
class Pod::FormattingCode Methods method type method meta
class Pod::Heading Methods method level
class Pod::Item Methods method level
role Positional Methods method of Methods that should be provided by classes that mix in this role method elems method AT-POS method EXISTS-POS method STORE See also
role PositionalBindFailover Methods method cache method list method iterator
role PredictiveIterator Methods method count-only method bool-only
class Proc Potential Deadlocks Methods routine new method sink method spawn method shell method command method Bool method pid method exitcode method signal
class Proc::Async Methods method new method stdout method stderr method bind-stdin method bind-stdout method bind-stderr method w method start method started method ready method pid method path method args method command method write method print method put method say method Supply method close-stdin method kill
class Promise Methods method start method in method at method kept method broken method allof method anyof method then method keep method break method result method cause method Bool method status method scheduler method vow method Supply sub await
class Proxy Methods method new
class PseudoStash
role QuantHash Methods method hash method Hash method of method keyof method Capture method list method Setty method Baggy method Mixy
class RaceSeq Methods method iterator method grep method map method invert method race method hyper method serial method is-lazy method sink
class Raku Methods method compiler method DISTROnames method KERNELnames method VMnames See Also
class Range Ranges in subscripts Shifting and scaling intervals Matching against Ranges Methods method ACCEPTS method min method excludes-min method max method excludes-max method bounds method infinite method is-int method int-bounds method minmax method elems method list method flat method pick method roll method sum method reverse method Capture method rand method EXISTS-POS method AT-POS method raku method fmt method WHICH sub infix:<+> sub infix:<-> sub infix:<*> sub infix: sub infix:
class Rat Methods method raku
class RatStr Methods method new method Capture method Numeric method Rat method Real Operators infix ===
role Rational Methods method new method Bool method Bridge method Int method Num method ceiling method floor method isNaN method numerator method denominator method nude method norm method base-repeating method Range
role Real Methods method Bridge method Complex method Int method Rat method Real method Str method Num routine rand method sign method round method floor method ceiling method truncate method polymod method base
class Regex Methods method ACCEPTS method Bool
class Routine Methods method name method package method multi method candidates method cando method wrap method unwrap method is-wrapped method yada trait is cached trait is pure trait is rw trait is export trait is DEPRECATED trait is hidden-from-backtrace trait is default trait is raw trait is test-assertion
class Routine::WrapHandle Methods method restore
class Scalar Atomic operations on Scalar Introspection method of method default method name method dynamic Routines sub atomic-assign sub atomic-fetch sub cas Operators infix ⚛= prefix ⚛
role Scheduler Methods method uncaught_handler method cue method loads
class Semaphore Methods method new method acquire method try_acquire method release
class Seq Methods method new method iterator method is-lazy method Seq method Capture method elems method from-loop method sink method skip
role Sequence Methods method Str method Stringy method Numeric method AT-POS method EXISTS-POS method eager method fmt method gist
class Set Creating Set objects Operators Subroutines sub set See Also
class SetHash Creating SetHash objects Operators Methods method set method unset See Also
role Setty Methods method new-from-pairs method grab method grabpairs method pick method pickpairs method roll method antipairs method keys method values method kv method elems method total method minpairs method maxpairs method default method ACCEPTS method Bag method BagHash method Bool method Mix method MixHash See Also
class Signature Signature literals Parameter separators Type constraints Constraining optional arguments Constraining slurpy arguments Constraining named arguments Constraining argument definiteness Constraining signatures of Callables Constraining return types Return type arrow: --> returns of prefix(C-like) form Coercion type Slurpy parameters Types of slurpy array parameters Flattened slurpy Unflattened slurpy Single argument rule slurpy Type captures Positional vs. named arguments Argument aliases Optional and mandatory arguments Dynamic variables Destructuring arguments Sub-signatures Long names Capture parameters Parameter traits and modifiers Methods method params method arity method count method returns method ACCEPTS method Capture Runtime creation of Signature objects (6.d, 2019.03 and later)
class Slip Methods method List sub slip Constants constant Empty
class Stash
class Str Methods routine chop routine chomp method contains routine lc routine uc routine fc routine tc routine tclc routine wordcase method unival method univals routine chars method encode method index routine rindex method indices method match method Numeric method Num method Int method Rat method Bool routine parse-base routine parse-names routine uniparse method samecase routine split routine comb routine lines routine words routine flip method starts-with method ends-with method subst Literal replacement substitution Callable Adverbs More Examples method subst-mutate routine substr method substr-eq method substr-rw routine samemark method succ method pred routine ord method ords method trans method indent method trim method trim-trailing method trim-leading method NFC method NFD method NFKC method NFKD method ACCEPTS method Capture routine val method Version method Date method DateTime
class StrDistance Methods method before method after method Bool method Numeric method Int method Str
role Stringy
class Sub Operators Traits
class Submethod Methods method gist
class Supplier Methods method new method Supply method emit method done method quit
class Supplier::Preserving Methods method new
class Supply Methods that return Taps method tap method act Utility methods method Capture method Channel method Promise method live method schedule-on Methods that wait until the supply is done method wait method list method Seq method grab method reverse method sort method collate method reduce Methods that return another Supply method from-list method share method flat method do method on-close method interval method grep method map method batch method elems method head method tail method first method split method rotate method rotor method delayed method throttle control messages status message Examples method stable method produce method lines method words method unique method repeated method squish method max method min method minmax method skip method start method migrate Methods that combine supplies method merge method zip method zip-latest I/O features exposed as supplies sub signal method
role Systemic Methods method auth method config method desc method name method signature method version method gist method Str
class Tap Methods method close
class Telemetry routine T routine snap routine snapper routine periods routine report module snapper
class Telemetry::Instrument::Thread
class Telemetry::Instrument::ThreadPool
class Telemetry::Instrument::Usage Useful readings Head
class Telemetry::Period
class Telemetry::Sampler method new method set-instruments
module Test Methods sub plan sub done-testing sub ok sub nok sub is sub isnt sub is_approx sub is-approx Absolute tolerance Relative tolerance Both absolute and relative tolerance specified sub is-approx-calculate sub is-deeply sub cmp-ok sub isa-ok sub can-ok sub does-ok sub like sub unlike sub use-ok sub dies-ok sub lives-ok sub eval-dies-ok sub eval-lives-ok sub throws-like sub fails-like sub subtest sub todo sub skip sub skip-rest sub bail-out sub pass sub flunk sub diag
class Thread Methods method new method start method run method id method finish method join method yield method app_lifetime method name method Numeric method Str method is-initial-thread Routines sub full-barrier
class ThreadPoolScheduler Methods new
Subset UInt
class Uni Methods method new method list method NFC method NFD method NFKC method NFKD method codes method elems
class VM Methods method osname method precomp-ext method precomp-target method prefix
class ValueObjAt
class Variable Traits trait is default trait is dynamic trait of Methods method name
class Version Methods method new method parts method plus method Str method gist method Capture
class Whatever Methods method ACCEPTS method Capture
class WhateverCode
class X::AdHoc Methods method payload method Numeric method from-slurpy
class X::Anon::Augment Methods method package-kind
class X::Anon::Multi Methods method multiness method routine-type
class X::Assignment::RO Methods method typename
class X::Attribute::NoPackage Methods method name
class X::Attribute::Package Methods method name method package-kind
class X::Attribute::Required Methods method name method why
class X::Attribute::Undeclared Methods method package-kind method package-name
class X::Augment::NoSuchType Methods method package-kind method package
class X::Bind
class X::Bind::NativeType Methods method name
class X::Bind::Slice Methods method type
class X::Caller::NotDynamic Methods method symbol
class X::Cannot::Empty Methods method action method what
class X::Cannot::Lazy Methods method action method what
class X::Channel::ReceiveOnClosed Methods method channel
class X::Channel::SendOnClosed Methods method channel
role X::Comp Methods method filename method line method column
class X::Composition::NotComposable Methods method target-name method composer
class X::Constructor::Positional
role X::Control
class X::ControlFlow Methods method illegal method enclosing
class X::ControlFlow::Return
class X::DateTime::TimezoneClash Methods sub message Defined as:
class X::Declaration::Scope Methods method scope method declaration
class X::Declaration::Scope::Multi
class X::Does::TypeObject Methods method type
class X::Dynamic::NotFound Methods method name
class X::Eval::NoSuchLang Methods method lang
class X::Export::NameClash Methods method symbol
role X::IO
class X::IO::Chdir Methods method path
class X::IO::Chmod
class X::IO::Copy Methods method from method to
class X::IO::Cwd
class X::IO::Dir Methods method path
class X::IO::DoesNotExist Methods method path method trying
class X::IO::Link Methods method target method name
class X::IO::Mkdir Methods method path method mode
class X::IO::Move Methods method from method to
class X::IO::Rename Methods method from method to
class X::IO::Rmdir Methods method path
class X::IO::Symlink Methods method name method target
class X::IO::Unlink Methods method path
class X::Inheritance::NotComposed Methods method child-name method parent-name
class X::Inheritance::Unsupported Methods method child-typename method parent
class X::Method::InvalidQualifier Methods method method method invocant method qualifier-type
class X::Method::NotFound Methods method method method typename method private method addendum
class X::Method::Private::Permission Methods method method method source-package method calling-package
class X::Method::Private::Unqualified Methods method method
class X::Mixin::NotComposable Methods method target method rolish
class X::NYI Methods method new method feature method did-you-mean method workaround method message
class X::NoDispatcher Methods method redispatcher
class X::Numeric::Real Methods method source method target method reason
role X::OS Methods method os-error
class X::Obsolete Methods method old method replacement method when
class X::OutOfRange Methods method what method got method range method comment
class X::Package::Stubbed Methods method packages
class X::Parameter::Default Methods method how method parameter
class X::Parameter::MultipleTypeConstraints Methods method parameter
class X::Parameter::Placeholder Methods method parameter method right
class X::Parameter::Twigil Methods method parameter method twigil
class X::Parameter::WrongOrder Methods method misplaced method parameter method after
class X::Phaser::Multiple Methods method block
class X::Phaser::PrePost Methods method phaser method condition
class X::Placeholder::Block Methods method placeholder
class X::Placeholder::Mainline
role X::Pod
role X::Proc::Async Methods method proc
class X::Proc::Async::AlreadyStarted
class X::Proc::Async::BindOrUse
class X::Proc::Async::CharsOrBytes Methods method handle
class X::Proc::Async::MustBeStarted Methods method method
class X::Proc::Async::OpenForWriting Methods method method
class X::Proc::Async::TapBeforeSpawn Methods method handle
class X::Proc::Unsuccessful Methods method proc
class X::Promise::CauseOnlyValidOnBroken Methods method promise method status
class X::Promise::Vowed Methods method promise
class X::Redeclaration Methods method symbol method what method postfix
class X::Role::Initialization Methods method role
class X::Scheduler::CueInNaNSeconds
class X::Seq::Consumed
class X::Sequence::Deduction
class X::Signature::NameClash Methods method name
class X::Signature::Placeholder Methods method placeholder
class X::Str::Numeric Methods method source method pos method reason
class X::StubCode Methods method message
role X::Syntax
class X::Syntax::Augment::WithoutMonkeyTyping
class X::Syntax::Comment::Embedded
class X::Syntax::Confused
class X::Syntax::InfixInTermPosition Methods method infix
class X::Syntax::Malformed Methods method what
class X::Syntax::Missing Methods method what
class X::Syntax::NegatedPair Methods method key
class X::Syntax::NoSelf Methods method variable
class X::Syntax::Number::RadixOutOfRange Methods method radix
class X::Syntax::P5
class X::Syntax::Perl5Var
class X::Syntax::Regex::Adverb Methods method adverb method construct
class X::Syntax::Regex::SolitaryQuantifier
class X::Syntax::Reserved Methods method reserved method instead
class X::Syntax::Self::WithoutObject
class X::Syntax::Signature::InvocantMarker
class X::Syntax::Term::MissingInitializer
class X::Syntax::UnlessElse
class X::Syntax::Variable::Match
class X::Syntax::Variable::Numeric Methods method what
class X::Syntax::Variable::Twigil Methods method twigil method scope
role X::Temporal
class X::Temporal::InvalidFormat Methods method invalid-str method target method format
class X::TypeCheck Methods method operation method got method expected
class X::TypeCheck::Assignment
class X::TypeCheck::Binding
class X::TypeCheck::Return
class X::TypeCheck::Splice Methods method action
class X::Undeclared Methods method symbol method what
class atomicint Routines sub atomic-assign sub atomic-fetch sub atomic-fetch-inc sub atomic-fetch-dec sub atomic-fetch-add sub atomic-fetch-sub sub atomic-inc-fetch sub atomic-dec-fetch sub cas Operators infix ⚛= prefix ⚛ prefix ++⚛ postfix ⚛++ prefix --⚛ postfix ⚛-- infix ⚛+= infix ⚛-= infix ⚛−=
Independent routines routine EVAL sub EVALFILE sub repl Note: repl was introduced in release 2021.06 of the Rakudo compiler. sub get sub getc sub mkdir sub chdir sub &*chdir sub chmod sub indir sub print sub put sub say routine note sub prompt sub open sub slurp sub spurt Options Examples sub run sub shell routine unpolar routine printf routine sprintf Directives Modifiers NYI Format parameter index using the '$' symbol Without index: NYI With index: Flags Vector flag 'v' Width (minimum) Precision, or maximum width Size Order of arguments sub flat routine unique routine repeated routine squish sub emit sub undefine Array manipulation sub pop sub shift sub push sub append Control routines sub exit sub done sub lastcall
class utf8